algorithmic art
by Risto A. Paju

tech notes


What follows are informal and incomplete notes on how I make my art. This is a work in progress started on 2018-07-18.

List of abbreviations

(besides common math and computing terms)
ETGescape-time graph
IFSiterated function system

Pointillist graphing

I began making art with iterated function systems in June 2015. I was taking the course "Johdatus fraktaaligeometriaan" (Introduction to fractal geometry) at University of Jyväskylä by Antti Käenmäki. One night I decided to write a script to check some of my work visually, and things grew from there. My approach is outlined in my Bridges 2016 paper (Colour version).

I continue to use and develop that method, with the calculations done in Julia and the results presented in gnuplot. These are tied together with Bash scripts, whose importance is not to be underestimated. For example, to render animations, these scripts distribute the work to different CPUs on different machines.

OpenGL live demos

Preliminary rant

I was planning to publish something like this section once in 2017, and this is from one of the most memorable reviews I got:

"Artists need not learn how to do GPU programming. Higher level languages and programming environments shield the artist from this tedious lower level."
Another reviewer also mentions that tools like Processing may use OpenGL behind the scenes. Well, I did have a look at Processing when I was starting my live demos in 2016, and it could not do render-to-texture, i.e. no iterated GPU work.

In general, I absolutely believe that artists should make their own tools whenever feasible. Past masters were known to make their own dyes, for example. To me it is all about making your own thing, vs. turning the knobs on a system someone else designed.

Moreover, I want to understand what is going on in my work. I sometimes get interesting results from coding mistakes, and then I want to know what actually happened so I can make better use of that effect. This really is a more general open-source argument, especially pertinent to scientific code: can you explain how your algorithm works?

Something like Processing might give a good start for algorithmic art, but with such "user-friendly" systems there are always limitations that you'll run into sooner or later. My Python-gnuplot setup was easy enough for 12-16 year olds, and we went straight into real code and professional tools.

I don't think programming should be hard for its own sake. After all, I use Python for my demos, which I find much simpler and easier than the default Java used by Processing (though sensibly enough, it can also use Python).


I started hacking together my live demo system in March 2016, as I was preparing my first live show for Yläkaupungin yö. I already had scripts where the Julia-gnuplot approach generated new pictures with random parameters every few seconds for a slide show, and a number of pre-made animations. I had realized there were I/O bottlenecks with my setup, so the next version would have to work within a GPU.

Why OpenGL in 2016?

OpenGL was not the obvious starting point, given the more flexible and powerful approaches that had already been around for a few years: OpenCL and CUDA (though these would generally use OpenGL to present the picture). The new unified framework Vulkan was also getting into mainstream.

However, my primary workstation/laptop did not even have OpenCL. While I did have newer/stronger machines around, I was already envisioning exhibitions with multiple small/cheap machines, so I wanted to keep the hardware requirements low. There was also a ton of literature, tutorials and examples on OpenGL, and I knew it could do fairly complex (pun intended) and flexible computations via shaders. (In fact, people were using OpenGL for non-graphics computing in the very early 2000s. These ideas were eventually formalized and developed into CUDA and OpenCL.)

Using Python's PyOpenGL was obvious early on, as I didn't need much power on the CPU side, and I knew Python well. Julia didn't have a complete OpenGL wrapper at the time, while Python has many other useful libraries I would need later, such as Numpy.

The choice of OpenGL had a number of effects on my art, as I moved from the math of abstract points into an image-manipulation approach. There were a lot of new limitations and quirks, which often turned out to make interesting results.

Examples / tutorials

Iterating shader passes on an image needs render to texture, and Leovt's example turned out a good starting point. Pyglet also turned out better than Pygame for my purposes; both provide windowing and keyboard controls among other things.

Another important example was glslmandelbrot by Jonas Wagner. Doing ETG was not directly relevant to my art, but this was a good starting point for using and controlling shaders. In fact, I soon extended this into my own general ETG system, and integrated it with my IFS scripts (early example).

Limited canvas size and resolution

The "canvas" in OpenGL is defined by coordinates of either [0, 1]2 (texture lookup) or [-1, 1]2 (target position). I usually scale these in my shaders so as to do math in [-2, 2]2 or [-10, 10]2 or something. In any case, they must be fixed at some point, and there is no simple way to auto-scale these depending on the image. The point of live demos is usually having randomly varying parameters, and you need extra room for that, but not too much as that would leave things small with huge margins.

Resolution becomes crucial in iterated OpenGL, because initial fine points will generally end up more or less blurred. Things must be quantized into the MxN grid at every iteration, and this often means interpolation blur. (Though the nearest-point approach can sometimes make neat retro/glitch effects.) For higher quality, I sometimes use FBs larger than the final screen.

In contrast, the mathematical points in my Julia-gnuplot approach have practically unlimited range and resolution, and gnuplot can auto-scale its output to fit the image nicely. But even then I often use larger-than-needed plotting resolutions to smooth things out, and I sometimes need to set my own ranges. (In any math problem, one should generally keep high precision and only round at the end.)

Linear IFS

Linear functions can be realized in basic OpenGL methods without shader math. In fact, this is how I started — by noting that a linear function means taking a photo and moving it around. Then you can take a photo of the result and you have iteration.

Such linear mappings are defined by vertex placement. (Technically, these can be somewhat nonlinear, in case the target shape is not a square/rectangle/parallelogram, depending on your definition of linearity.) For starters, the vertex data for identity mapping:

(((-1, -1), (0.0, 0.0)),
 ((1, -1),  (1.0, 0.0)),
 ((1, 1),   (1.0, 1.0)),
 ((-1, 1),  (0.0, 1.0)))
These are the corresponding target and texture coordinates of the SW, SE, NE and NW corners in this order (recall the above canvas limits). The following mapping would rotate by -pi/4 and multiply by 1/sqrt(2) while keeping it centred:
(((-1, 0), (0.0, 0.0)),
 ((0, -1),  (1.0, 0.0)),
 ((1, 0),   (1.0, 1.0)),
 ((0, 1),  (0.0, 1.0)))
In other words, I take the corners of the texture, and place them somewhere on the target FB (generally within corners, anything outside will be cut out). This example is illustrated in the picture, fox art courtesy of Aino Martiskainen.

Nonlinear functions: shaders and inverses

The basic photo-collage operations of rotation and translation, etc., cannot capture nonlinear transformations. Likewise, vertex positioning would fail to reproduce such mappings. The solution is found in shader programs, but there is a slight complication: the functions must be defined in the inverse direction.

Modern OpenGL uses shader programs all the time, but for linear mappings they are simple pass-through boilerplate. For each output pixel, the fragment shader decides the colour, often by looking up an input pixel whose position depends on the output position. For graphics processing it is a sensible direction: you only calculate what you'll see.

This stage provides a kind of workaround for the limited canvas size: if your lookup position is beyond 0 or 1, you can wrap it around (mod 1 or a mirroring version). This can be done with OpenGL settings, no need to change your shader code. It can make interestingly repeating, non-periodic patterns. (For wraparound in a linear IFS, write the linear function in a shader.)

Inverting functions is not always feasible. In some cases this makes things easier, for instance with Julia sets as they can keep the same form as they do in ETG. In other cases you get nice surprises as you try familiar functions in the inverse way.

At best, you will learn to think about functions in this lookup direction more naturally and take advantage of it. Mathematicians will find themselves right at home; preimages of sets are at the heart of topology and measure theory, for example.

I now have unified the linear and nonlinear approaches, since often a function can have a linear outer function, and this makes it easier on the GPU.

Parameter evolution

As a simple example, the Julia-set polynomial z2 + c has two parameters: Re(c) and Im(c). The parameter space is a 2D plane. In practice, one would use a box just around the Mandelbrot set to get nice Julia sets. (This video shows one such path along with its Julias, albeit not very box-like.)

The total n parameters of all functions can be regarded as a point in an n-dimensional box. To make my demos alive, I fly this point around the box using a kind of random walk. This post on my Facebook page elaborates a little, with another video.

Stages overlay

One key idea in my Bridges 2016 paper was overlaying the stages of iteration into a single graph, so that was an important aim with OpenGL too. It was relatively straightforward, once every iteration was given its own FB. The pictures are white on transparent during iterations, and they are coloured by multiplication upon the overlay stage.

This method is relatively heavy due to the number of iterations per displayed frame. First, there are the individual iterations, typically 10. In addition, the overlay step involves one rendering per visible stage, so there are often 15...20 renders per frame, or about 1000 renders/sec with typical framerates.

Camera loop / continuous iteration

An alternative method draws from real-life video loops, which are nice to play with if you have a video camera connected to a display. In IFS parlance, it would be a single linear function, so not particularly interesting. Adding multiple displays that show the same feed makes a proper IFS. The camera needs to see all of them at least to some extent; the background visible outside/between the displays will provide the light that circulates through the system.

In my IFS setup, this just means rendering the iterated images back onto the original. I use a cyclical buffer of several FBs to simulate/exaggerate the physical delay. As in the real setup, this becomes interesting as the functions themselves change during the iterations. Sometimes I leave out the delay buffer to simulate a continuous flow process (example).

Performance-wise, the Camtinuum™ is particularly nice as there is only one iteration per frame. This is easily noticed on slower integrated GPUs, which would choke on the corresponding multi-stage demo.

Alpha, transparency and blend

To simulate proper IFS graphs, blend is essential. The images of each function must be overlaid so that the (transparent) background of one doesn't hide other images. Sometimes the usual "alpha blend" is not the best approach, and others may give interesting results. Blend-less hard overlay naturally simulates multi-display camera feedback (unless you have those transparent displays from SF movies). Max blend is good for simulating CRT afterglow, albeit that would be a separate single-function, single-stage postproc operation.

The gradient effect from my Bridges 2016 paper can be simulated by varying the alpha levels within functions, depending on their derivatives. It is often hard to get nice results so I use it quite sparingly (example with both Julia-gnuplot and OpenGL methods on similar functions).

In the stages overlay, alpha levels can be set separately for each iterate to get translucent colour mixing. This can be used as a rudimentary simulation of the pointillist effect, where the final iterates have higher point densities due to being smaller.

Colour manipulation and creation / non-iterated demos

While we're doing image processing, functions can alter colour as well as position of pixels. This is a huge difference to the basic IFS math of colourless points. Frankly, I have not wandered very far in that direction; my colour processing endeavours have been limited to single-pass demos such as these two. Even this level has a lot to explore.

Initial sets / image sources

My Pointillist paper has a section on different initial sets, and that applies to OpenGL too. The basic initial sets are solid shapes instead of sets of separate points. Random pointsets can be simulated but they often end up blurry due to the usual quantization and interpolation. Thus I sometimes use large, blocky "points" for a kind of retro pixel look.

As noted above, pixels in OpenGL are not just points but they also carry colour, so full-colour images can be used as initial sets. These are best used with single or 2-3 iterations. Pyglet has simple ways to load image files into textures.

Live video input is the next level, and it makes a nice proof that these things do run in realtime. It is a little more involved: I use OpenCV with bit of GStreamer to read cameras and video files, then pygarrayimage for fast texture transfer.

Hardware and performance notes

Most of my demos run fairly smoothly on integrated Intel GPUs from early 2010s such as HD 3000, albeit in resolutions closer to VGA than Full HD. For serious work on serious resolutions, I've found that entry-level discrete GPUs such as Nvidia GTX 750 suffice quite well; for the iterations in IFS art, dedicated VRAM makes a big difference. Intel GPUs also have outright bugs in their trigonometric functions, and they lack some nice OpenGL extensions.

So the promises/expectations of low hardware requirements have been met, at least relative to current laptops or desktops. But as for the cheap/small exhibition hardware, machines like the Raspberry Pi are unlikely to have the oomph for iterated demos. This is simply from looking at GPU FLOPS, and they have even slower video memory than integrated Intels.

In many simple cases, visually similar results can be achieved with much lower computational demands. However, this needs more math/code for each function and initial set. My framework is all about flexibility: plug in any function and any initial set/picture/video, and let the computer do the hard work. This, to me, is the essence of algorithms: repeating simple processes for a complex result.

Open source software

Starting with Linux in 1999, I use Free/Open source software almost exclusively (Nvidia Linux drivers being the main exception). I have also contributed to other projects and released my own, with the prominent examples on my Github account. That said, I have no plans to release my math-art code. It is an ongoing personal art project.

In open source, it is best to release projects that are

I certainly don't have well-defined clean code here. The remaining points mean unpaid work and time away from my art and personal life. On the other hand, I am open to serious offers with decent compensation (not necessarily money).

Still, I have used GPL3 examples, so if I ever have a good reason to release this code, it will be open source under the GPL3. In the meantime, please enjoy this little overview, may you be inspired in your own art :)

Workshop code

In 2017 I taught a workshop of fractal art at a local school, for 12-16 year olds. You'll find the material under the "teaching" directory on this website. It contains simplified Python scripts for my pointillist method, along with the gnuplot files and some instruction to get you started. The link is hidden this way due to the above support issues; if this works for you, great, but I don't teach for free.

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